The 70th anniversary of the building of the SABT named after A.Navoi
Today is the 70th anniversary of the outstanding architectural structure in the city, the historical building of the State Academic Bolshoi Theater named after Alisher Navoi, designed by the most eminent architect of that time, Academician A.Shchusev.
November 6, 1947, Tashkent happily raged in the evening because of the opening a new theater.
The great and unprecedented construction was completed and a surprise – the new opera "The Valley of Happiness" by M. Ashrafi, S. Vasilenko were waiting for spectators on a new stage.
The evening that went down on the city lit torches - floor lamps on both sides of the entrance portal, lace chandeliers on the facades of the building and a fairy-tale marble palace, as the author of the project, the outstanding academician A.V.Shchusev saw it, revived and affably opened his carved doors for the first visitors.
The members of the government, public and creative figures, and representatives of all regions of Uzbekistan were Honorable guests of that evening.
Solemnly, lightly, joyfully! Probably the greatest joy was in the hearts of the builders. After all, they knew all the difficulties that had to be overcome in these 4 years. The fact that the building of the Bolshoi Theater is built in hand is not a fairy tale at all. This huge construction was built with the help of 3 primitive benches, worked out by the chief construction mechanic Yegor Trebennikov. At that time there was no construction equipment, and the best tools were the hardworking hands of the masters.
In the spring of 1943, the resumption of construction was a sign of a quick victory for people and there was no other place in Tashkent, where so much as they wanted to get at least some work. The theater attracted the masters and an excellent team quickly formed there. The old guard of highly professional masters-decorators came: Vasily Kalyakin, Mikhail Kolpakov, Vasily Yakushin, Vasily Kudryavtsev, and Stepan Tagarin, who introduced themselves as follows: "We are from St. Petersburg. We arrived here while boys with our fathers and grandfathers to build a palace for prince sent to Tashkent. We settled down here, and preserved our craft." And one day an ancient, good-looking elder man appeared at the construction site, went into the office, took out a mountain of various tools from the shoulder bag and began to explain: “I am Nikiforov Fyodor, a goldsmith master. I decorated gold icons in Vladimir and Novgorod. Probably, I'll need you here, too. And the tool is available here”. It was he who first covered the gilded theatrical chandeliers with Mordan lacquer, which he made himself.
And the master of the facade brickwork was a stone foreman Kamil Salimov, a man who combined high craftsmanship, inexorable demands for quality and genuinely folk humor, and addressing the boss, he cheerfully said: Well, close one eye, look at the seam for the entire length – you can see Moscow itself!" Its brickwork with a pressed seam 10x10 mm. is unique for today too.
And the other two masters on the contrary were silent. These are Mikhail Karabanov and Vasily Shatsky, who on primitive self-made machines organized the processing of several thousand squares of meters of oak stock onto parquet cover and spent many hours mulling over asphalt mastic for parquet work.
There were no mercenary or indifferent people at the construction site. If they did, they soon quit, because there worked many fine masters who put inspirational work and deep wisdom of professional experience into this building.
It was a hard military time, there was not enough material, but they had to build. The time has come to decor, but there were neither chalk nor dyes. Having heard about this, a carver on marble Bolta Juraev is intervened. The next morning, on the construction site, a floor oven, made of fragments of marble, was lit. Bolta conjured it over night, and then the barrels were filled with baked marble, filled with water and tightly closed. After 3 days Bolta entered the chief's office and put a plate with "sour cream" on the table, cunningly saying: "This is not to eat! We will cover walls by this. It is as good as glue or oil paint!" He burned out the marble lime, which no one knows now. Another time Bolta Juraev managed to solve the problem with a lack of marble. Marble was transported from Gazgan and its supplies were already depleted. On another trip for delivering the stone, Bolta met an old man who told him about the abandoned quarry of black marble. So, 3 blocks were delivered to Tashkent, much surprising Shchusev with such a gift. After processing, the marble began to play. It was black with white veins and golden patches. This marble was used on the upper rail of the front staircase.
All participants of this construction were like one heart and one soul. Everyone contributed to the common cause, which has become for everyone dear and close. The head of construction was the young 25-year-old Leonid Pickman, who left his memories for us, thanks to which we can look into the past. His son Eugene, after almost 30 years, carried his father's baton, directing the reconstruction of the theater in 1971-75, when the building was dressed in the usual for today outfit. Colonnades and pylons were covered with marble, and basement and stylobate – with granite. Then the realization of Shchusev's dream was completed, to which the theater building was pictured in his creative fantasy, like a huge marble chest, like fairy-tale palaces that are described in the poems of Navoi. In addition, the building became an accompanying national ornamental art. These walls and ceilings store the touch of the wonderful hands of masters, who with their highest skill reproduced in the interior decoration of the premises the original masterpieces of the ancient national carving in ganch. No wonder guests visiting our theater unanimously exclaim: "This is wonderful work! It's done for ages. What a beauty!"
Much of the architectural decor was done by the general favorite, the kind, wise master Tashpulat Arslankulov, who even taught Japanese workers to carving ganch and made them his disciples.
Opera and ballet performances developed and acquired creative maturity on the stage of the theater. These are daring productions of the Russian classics "The Queen of Spades" and "Eugene Onegin" in Uzbek in 1947-1948, and the first classical ballet “Swan Lake” in 1950, and full-fledged opera performances as “Farkhod and Shirin”, “Tokhir and Zukhra”, which are at all times the pearl of the theater's national repertoire.
The baton of the older generation of artists was borne by the masters of the middle generation. People's Artist S.Kabulova, S.Yarashev, D.Nizamkhodjaev, S.Benjaminov, I.Yusupov, V.Vasiliev, G.Khamraeva, V.Proskurina, N.Yakubova, Honored Artist A.Azimov, R.Kuchlikova, O.Kuchlikova, T.Danilova, etc. Of course, we can’t tell about all of them in a few lines!
How quickly time flies ... SABT has lived and works in the new millennium for 17 years, updating its capabilities and still retaining the status of the leading theater of our country. People of the 21st century did not forget about the uniqueness of the theater building, and in 2010-2015 a large reconstruction was carried out, which allowed not only strengthen the old basement, but also to significantly expand and update all theatrical premises.
Precious ganch and murals were also restored, and the beauty of the unique national carving once again shone for the visitors.
The building of the SABT is 70 years old!
This is a lot, and is not enough. It is a lot, because it is a whole human life. Among the workers of the theater there were and there are those who came at the very beginning and stayed in the theater for life. It is not enough, because no other theater has such an amazing, extraordinary, brief history of origin, formation and development.
What to wish to you, Bolshoi?
Perhaps, inspiration, fulfillment of creative plans and, of course, many premieres! After all, art is eternal! In our difficult age it is able to carry beauty, love and goodness to people's hearts, raise us above the ordinary problems, open the eyes of our hearts, and make us better and purer.
The material was prepared by Julia Seryakova, Head of the Museum of the SABT named after Navoi
6 ноября 2017